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Siddha Siddhaanta Sa.mgraha

There is nothing greater than guru, nothing greater than guru, nothing greater than guru, nothing greater than guru.
Shiva is the instructor. Shiva is the instructor. Shiva is the instructor. Shiva is the instructor.” – Siddha Siddhanta Paddhati, V, 63.

The following introduction was written by Gopinath Kaviraj as his introduction to the text of the Siddha Siddhanta Samgraha, published by the Government Sanskrit College, Benares 1925, and thus out of copyright. Sanskrit words in this introduction use the iTrans method of transliteration. This work is based on the Siddha Siddhanta Paddhati, an English abstract of which may be found here.

The text of Siddhasiddhaanta Sa.mgraha published for the first time in the following pages represents a summary of the Siddhasiddhaanta Paddhati, attributed to Nityanaatha. It is a work on Yoga and contains a brief exposition of some of the most important doctrines associated with the name of GorakShanaatha.

As the doctrines of this sect are not known to any but the members of its esoteric circle I may be excused for attempting a brief analysis of the contents of this work here. But those who wish to have a detailed account are referred to my forthcoming tract on “Studies in Nathism”. The book is divided into seven sections (upadeshaaH) which treat of the following topics–

Section I – Origin of six-fold body (piNDotpatti)
Section II – Discussion of body (pinDA vichaara)
Section III – Knowledge of body (piNDasa.mchitti)
Section IV – The Foundation (aadhaara) of body
Section V – Equation of body (piNDa) and Supreme Reality (parama pada)
Section VI – Definition of Avadhuuta
Section VII – Conclusion

The first section deals with the gradual formation of six piNDas, designated here as Para or AAdi, Saakaara, Mahaasaakaara, PraakR^ita, Avalokana and Garbha. The physical body with which we are familiar represents in its incipient condition the last type named in the list, viz. garbha, and is the outcome of physical procreation. An interesting account of embryonic growth is furnished, showing its different stages in order and also distinguishing the contributions of each of the parents to this growth. The other 5 piNDas stand for subtler and subtler states of the garbha and exhibit how and under what circumstances the Supreme Reality evolves itself into the material organism. It may be of interest to note that each piNDa is supposed to comprise five factors, and as each factor is said to display five qualities, each piNDa represents an aggregate of 25 qualities.

The second section dwells upon the 9 chakras, 16 aadhaaras, 3 laXyas & 5 vyomans – principles with which one must be familiar in order to be a Yogii in the true sense of the word. The 8 yogaa~ngas also have been briefly described. The nine chakras include, besides the well-known six psychic centres, GhaNTikaa, Manolaya and Bramhachakra or the thousand-petalled lotus. It may not be out of place to note here that this scheme does not exactly tally with the usual account. The first chakra, for instance, is called here Brahmachakra, like the last one, & is described as a three-folded triangular region, below which is kanda where shakti is located. This is known as Kaamaruupa PiiTha. The second chakra is said to be a four-petalled lotus, which represents the UDDiaana PiiTha in the body. The next chakra is the locus of the KuNDalinii. The Anaahata chakra is usually described as a lotus of 12 petals, but here it is called an eight-petalled lotus, within which is a bright liNga, known as Hansakala. The SuShumnaa, lying between IDaa and Pi~ngalaa, is the Anaahatakalaa. The usual AAGY~na chakra is replaced by Taalu chakra, from which the current of nectar is said to flow. The sixteen aadhaaras mentioned here are so many places within the body on which the mind has to be fixed for attainment of different results. The three laxyas are connected with three kinds of gazing, uurdhva, madhya and adhaH. The five vyomans indicate the Supreme Aakaasha in varying stages of its purity.

The third section treats of the identity of the microcosm with the macrocosm, and shows that whatever exists in the world outside is present also in the human body. Thus the 7 nether regions are located in the region below the bottom of the spinal column, and the 21 heavens in the upper regions of the body. In the 9 avenues are the 9 KhaNDas. The hills, rivers, stars, planets, tithis, devas, munis, bhuutas, pretas, pishachas, raxasas, daityas, daanavas, &c have their counterparts in the body. These include khecharas, Dakinis, sun, moon, clouds, tiirthas, creepers, plants & insects. Heaven, hell & also moxa are realisable in the body itself. The fourth section treats of the support (aadhaara) of the body which is shakti. This shakti is known as shiva when it is unruffled & quiet. She is both kula and akula. Kula is fivefold – i) Paraa ii) Bhaasaa iii) Sattaa iv, Ahantaa, and v) Kalaa. Akula is unique. It assumes kula & thence descends into vyavahaara. Shiva without Shakti is impotent.

As the support of the piNDa she is called KuNDalinii, & is either sleeping or waking. In the latter state alone she is conscious. Owing to upward tension, effected by the so-called muulabandha, she rises upwards. The sentient and insentient world illustrates the different degrees of expansion or self-revelation of this Power. There are said to be 9 minor shaktis in the 9 chakras, but the Primal Shakti is one. As ccreation and dissolution of the world follow from her expansion and contraction, she is usually described as the Muula or Root of the Universe. The Madhya KuNDalii is two-fold, one being lower & gorss, and the other higher & subtle. The stability and purity of body (dehasiddhi) are possibly only when she is roused. Difference between Shiva and Shakti is unreal & due to ignorance.

The 5th section deals with the manner how the piNDa and the supreme pada may be equilibriated. The establishment of their equilibrium is known as PiNDasiddhi. The Grace of Guru – which is nothing but the Supreme Transcendent Reality beyond words – enables the aspirant to shake off all siddhis & other fruits, realise the nirutthAna state & obtain Union (saamarasya) of the body with itself. This attempt leads to Supreme Delight through the revelation of the Self (nijaava.msha), thence to awaking of an awareness causing the flavour of pure and eternal joy, to loss of duality, realisation of the highest state of the PuruSha & knowledge of one’s own PiNDa. Knowledge of one’s own piNDa is followed by unification with the Supreme Reality (parama.m pada.m).

The sixth section gives a brief account of the Avadhuuta who alone deserves to be called a xapaNaka, yogii and siddha.

The seventh section contains miscellaneous matter. The work claims to have been compiled at Benares by one Balabhadra at the bidding of KR^iShNaraaja. Balabhadra was of Shaa~ndilya gotra. His time is not known. There is a reference in the work to the following authors and books – Lalita SvachChanda, Tattvasaara and JaThara Sa.mhitaa Nibandha. But as the dates of these latter are not known, the reference is of no use in determining the author’s age. The edition is based upon a single incorrect manuscript. There are numerous errors, some due to to the carelessness of the scribe and some caused through inadvertence of the author himself. The importance of the book, as representing a hitherto unknown system of culture, has persuaded me to present it with all its errors, in the hope that it will prove a useful contribution to our knowledge of the subject.

Gopinath Kaviraj
Sanskrit College, Benares

Artwork is © Jan Bailey, 1975-2022. Translations are © Mike Magee 1975-2022.Questions or comments to mike.magee@btinternet.com

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